The Hamilton Tariff (enacted on July 4, 1789, also called the Tariff of 1789) was the second statute ever enacted by the new federal government of the United States. Most of the rates of the tariff were between 5 and 10 percent, depending on the value of the item.

Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton was anxious to establish the tariff as a regular source of government revenue and to protect domestic manufacture. The former was of immediate necessity; the latter was not.

The Hamilton Tariff and much of Hamilton's financial plan can be attributed as one of the causes of the schism in the Federalist Party. It protected the Northern manufacturers (by making imported goods more expensive) but harmed Southern farmers (by making products more expensive).

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